PyPSA-Eur-30: Scenarios for Europe with 95% renewable electricity

In these scenarios 95% of today's electricity demand in Europe is covered with renewable energy. This corresponds to a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in the electricity sector by 95% compared to Europe's 1990 electricity emissions.

In each scenario, different volumes of cross-border transmission are built. Transmission helps to balance wind and solar across the continent. With less transmission, more storage must be built to balance variable renewables in time instead.

For each country the breakdown of electricity suppliers is shown in the top half-pie-chart (i.e. all generators and discharging storage), while the breakdown of electricity consumers is shown in the bottom half-pie-chart (i.e. all electrical demand and charging storage). If the half-pie-charts have the same radius, than supply exactly balances demand at the node; if the supply half-pie is bigger, then the country has to export its excess electricity; if the consumer half-pie is bigger, then the country has to import electricity.

These results are taken from the research paper The benefits of cooperation in a highly renewable European electricity network (free-to-download: postprint). The full datasets (input data, code, output for every hour of the weather year 2011) are freely available online. The results were simulated with the free software PyPSA. The code for the animations is also freely available at the github repository PyPSA-animation. Maps are made with Natural Earth.

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Choose cross-border transmission scenario

No transmission (each country is self-sufficient in every hour)
Transmission equivalent to today's capacities (but not necessarily in same place)
2x today's capacities
4x today's capacities
8x today's capacities

Choose season


Choose time of week


Suppliers (top half-pie)

Consumers (bottom half-pie)


Choose country for detailed information

Country yearly energy and installed power depending on European cross-border capacity

Total European annual system costs depending on cross-border capacity

(Additional legend: transmission costs in black and gas fuel costs in orange; distribution grid and ancillary services costs not included)

Comparable websites

The following websites are comparable animations of electricity systems:

Kombikraftwerk II by Fraunhofer IWES

RE Explorer by NREL

Internet of Energy by Lappeenranta University of Technology

Electricity Map by Tomorrow (free software)

US Electric System Operating Data by EIA

Interactive simulation of power grid dynamics by CoNDyNet Consortium (free software)